Securing With Zero Trust

As remote work becomes more common, ensuring data security is becoming increasingly challenging and critical. The construct of the statement “Nothing is safe from attack and a breach is imminent” highlights the need for robust security measures to protect sensitive information, leading to a paradigm shift in the way organizations approach CyberSecurity. The Zero Trust model, which operates on the principle of "never trust, always verify," is gaining traction as a viable solution to the evolving threat landscape.

This article will explore the Zero Trust model, its benefits, and how it can be implemented to enhance a mature CyberSecurity posture. We'll start with a Zero Trust Model Overview, followed by a brief discussion of the Zero Trust Components and Principles. We'll also highlight the Zero Trust Pillars, the Zero Trust PDP/PEP, the Zero Trust Tenets, followed by a discussion of the Zero Trust Journey and how the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) developed and enhanced the framework, and the integration and adaptation of Zero Trust, the value of cryptography in cybersecurity and how it supports a Zero Trust Network Architecture (ZTNA), followed by a Phased Deployment Review of Zero Trust, concluding with the User Experience in a Zero Trust Architecture Environment.

Zero Trust Components

The traditional perimeter-based security model, which assumes that everything within an organization’s network can be trusted and should therefore have access to all resources, is no longer sufficient in today’s CyberSecurity landscape. Five challenges stand out as having the most impact:

  • Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs): These are sophisticated, targeted attacks, often supported by well-funded and organized groups or even nation-states. They can remain undetected for extended periods, causing significant damage.
  • Emerging Technologies and IoT: The rapid adoption of technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing introduces new vulnerabilities that cyber-criminals can exploit.
  • Skills Shortage: There is a worldwide shortage of skilled CyberSecurity professionals, making it difficult for organizations to adequately defend against evolving threats.
  • Zero Day Vulnerability: A zero-day vulnerability is a software security flaw that is known to the software vendor but doesn't have a patch in place to fix the flaw. This is a major concern for all organizations and should be addressed immediately.
  • Regulatory Compliance and Data Protection: Adhering to various data protection and privacy regulations, such as GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), can be challenging for organizations. Non-compliance can result in hefty fines and reputation damage.

Addressing and mitigating cybersecurity challenges require continuous innovation, investment, and collaboration within the industry. CISOs who implement Zero Trust know that it is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Many start with identity, which is crucial for verifying access requests. However, it doesn’t stop there. In fact, Vasu Jakkal, Corporate Vice President of Security, Compliance, Identity, and Management at Microsoft, stated that “Because Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) is designed to prevent an attacker’s ability to move laterally, a Zero Trust strategy is extremely helpful in prioritizing and addressing prevention-focused investments.” He continues, "By implementing a Zero Trust strategy, organizations can more safely embrace a hybrid workplace and protect people, devices, mobile applications, and data wherever they are located."1

The adoption of a Zero Trust architecture (ZTA) is becoming increasingly imperative in managing the intricacies of today's organizations, a trend that has not gone unnoticed by CISOs and their security teams. According to Microsoft's Zero Trust Adoption Report, a staggering 96% of security professionals recognize the pivotal role of Zero Trust in their organization's success. Notably, 81% are already underway in implementing this approach, spurred by the evolution towards a hybrid work environment. These findings resonate with the insights from Foundry's Security Priorities study, revealing that 46% of organizations have either implemented or are testing Zero Trust solutions, while an additional 38% are actively exploring this innovative security paradigm. “There’s been a fundamental shift over the last two years (since 2021) about the reality of adopting Zero Trust,” says Bob Bragdon, SVP and Worldwide Managing Director of CSO. “Before that, it was considered too much of a lift for most organizations. That’s completely turned around now. Bigger organizations, in particular, are all-in on it.”

A ZTA is an enterprise CyberSecurity design based on a set of strategic Zero Trust principles, developed to prevent data breaches and reduce or completely eliminate internal lateral movement in case of a breach. It is a security strategy that mandates strict identity verification for every person and device attempting to access resources on a private network. Zero Trust is not based on a single, wide area network architecture, but a set of micro-segmented architectures guided by a strict set of principles for work flow, system design, and operations, all aimed at enhancing the security posture of asset classification levels. Transitioning to ZTA can be achieved through a wholesale transition or complete replacement of legacy technology.

Overall, there are seven areas that require attention: Identity, Devices, Data, Applications, Networks, Infrastructures, and cryptography. The following is a brief overview of each of these areas:

  1. Identity: Identity is the foundation of Zero Trust. It is the first step in the process of verifying access requests. Identity and Access Management (IAM) solutions are crucial for ensuring that only authorized users and devices can access resources. IAM solutions should be able to authenticate and authorize access requests based on the user's identity, device, location, and other factors. With the proliferation of mobile and IoT devices, as well as cloud computing, security should prioritize context and identity over traditional network boundaries. Identities, be they for people, services, or IoT devices, are central to the Zero Trust model. Each access attempt requires robust authentication, while policies should enforce compliance and adhere to least-privilege principles.
  2. Devices: Devices are another critical component of Zero Trust. They facilitate access to other resources. It is critical that only authorized devices are able to access criti8cal resources. After an identity gains access to a resource, data can be sent to various devices - IoT devices, smart phones, BYOD, partner-managed devices, on-premises workloads, and cloud-hosted servers. This diversity of endpoints expands the potential attack surface, necessitating tools and processes to monitor and ensure device health and compliance for secure access. Device management solutions should also be able to detect and prevent unauthorized access attempts.
  3. Data: Data is the most valuable asset in any organization. As sensitive data often travels beyond controlled networks and devices, it needs self-contained protection. This starts with effective identification, classification, and labeling. Therefore, it is essential to protect it from unauthorized access. Data protection solutions should be able to detect and prevent unauthorized access attempts. Automation is vital for efficiency.
  4. Applications: Applications are the gateway where users access resources. Only authorized applications should be able to run and access resources via controlled APIs and policies. This can be achieved by implementing application management solutions that can detect and prevent unauthorized applications from accessing resources. The average organization uses 254 SaaS apps, not including on-premises or migrated workloads. Applications pose a significant attack surface. Security teams must employ controls to address shadow IT, manage permissions, monitor behavior, and validate configurations. Application management solutions should also be able to detect and prevent unauthorized access attempts.
  5. Networks: Networks are the primary means by which users access resources. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that only authorized networks can access resources. This can be achieved by implementing network management solutions that can detect and prevent unauthorized networks from accessing resources. Data is accessed over network infrastructure. Networking controls offer vital safeguards, enhancing visibility and thwarting lateral movement. Segmentation, micro-segmentation, threat protection, encryption, monitoring, and analytics are essential. Network management solutions should also be able to detect and prevent unauthorized access attempts.
  6. Infrastructure: Infrastructure is the ecosystem that hosts applications and other critical resources. Today's IT infrastructure varies from on-premises servers to cloud VMs, containers, and microservices, posing a significant threat vector. In on-premises setups, tracking and securing all components is challenging. Tools for versioning, configuration checks, and just-in-time access are crucial. Telemetry is vital for attack detection and response. Infrastructure management solutions should also be able to detect and prevent unauthorized access attempts.
  7. Cryptography: Cryptography plays a pivotal role in implementing and enhancing the principles of zero trust in cybersecurity. It acts as a foundational element in the implementation of zero trust principles, providing essential tools to secure data, authenticate users and devices, and establish trustworthy communication channels within an inherently untrusted environment. Cryptography ads tremendous value and provides data encryption, secure communication channels, authentication and digital signatures, tokenization, and key management.

Zero Trust Solution

When it is time to venture into the Zero Trust journey, it is essential to understand that it is not a one-size-fits-all solution. It is a strategic approach to security that emphasizes safeguarding critical aspects of information. If you ignore any areas of Cybersecurity, you are leaving your organization vulnerable to attack. Most of all, do not ignore the significant value that Cryptography brings to the table. If your data is fully encrypted, it is useless to an attacker. If your data is not encrypted, it is vulnerable to unauthorized users and can harm your customers and your organization's bottom line.

The following is a brief overview of Cryptography and its value to Zero Trust:

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) represents a pivotal milestone in cryptography, introduced in 1977 under Federal Information Processing Standard 46. Operating as a symmetric-key encryption system, DES employed a 64-bit block size and a 56-bit key length. Initially designed for non-military applications, its adoption was swift.

As technology progressed, DES's security waned, becoming susceptible to decryption in less than a day by 1999. To counter this, FIPS 46-3 introduced Triple DES, applying the original DES algorithm three times as a temporary solution until the advent of a more robust symmetric-key algorithm — the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Notably, suspicions arose about the National Security Agency (NSA) potentially weakening DES deliberately. However, revelations in the '90s disclosed that the NSA had actually enhanced DES, contributing positively to security.

AES, published as FIPS 197 in 2001, marked a significant leap. With increased complexity and key lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits, AES found widespread use in symmetric encryption, securing applications like web connections, messaging platforms, and full disk encryption.

Expected to remain secure, even against potential quantum threats, AES stands resilient. Simultaneously, the public-key cryptography revolution advanced cryptographic capabilities. Developments such as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, RSA, and elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) addressed key distribution challenges, provided integrity and authenticity through digital signatures, and facilitated key revocation and scalability in large groups.

RSA, specifically, played a crucial role in solving the key distribution problem. Its asymmetric encryption approach allowed secure communication channel establishment without a pre-existing secure channel. Combining RSA with cryptographic hashing enabled the creation of digital signatures, verifying message authenticity and integrity, safeguarding against tampering.

In the realm of secure communication, RSA tokens play a significant role. These tokens generate temporary, one-time codes that users must enter along with their regular passwords. This two-factor authentication enhances security by adding an additional layer of verification beyond the standard password. The RSA algorithm ensures the secure generation and validation of these tokens, contributing to robust communication security practices. Despite these advancements, the looming threat of quantum cryptography has prompted NIST to standardize quantum-safe algorithms, preparing for potential challenges posed by quantum computing in the future.

Cryptography plays a pivotal role in implementing and enhancing the principles of zero trust in cybersecurity. Zero trust is a security framework that operates on the assumption that threats can emerge from both external and internal sources. It mandates a "never trust, always verify" approach, emphasizing continuous verification of user identity, devices, and applications, irrespective of their location within or outside the network perimeter.

Here's how cryptography adds value to the zero trust model:

Data Encryption:

Value: Cryptographic techniques such as encryption provide a fundamental layer of protection for sensitive data. Encrypting data at rest, in transit, and during processing ensures that even if unauthorized access occurs, the data remains unintelligible without the proper cryptographic keys.
Implementation in Zero Trust: In a zero trust environment, all data, regardless of its location or the perceived level of trust, should be encrypted. This ensures that even if an attacker gains access to a network segment, they cannot make sense of the encrypted data without the appropriate decryption keys.

Secure Communication Channels:

Value: Cryptographic protocols establish secure communication channels between different components in a network, preventing eavesdropping and man-in-the-middle attacks.
Implementation in Zero Trust: In a zero trust architecture, where trust is never assumed, secure communication channels become imperative. Cryptographic protocols like TLS (Transport Layer Security) are used to encrypt and secure communications between devices, applications, and users.

Authentication and Digital Signatures:

Value: Cryptographic mechanisms such as digital signatures and authentication protocols ensure the integrity and authenticity of users and devices.
Implementation in Zero Trust: Zero trust mandates continuous authentication and verification. Cryptographic techniques like digital signatures and multi-factor authentication help confirm the identity of users and devices, making it challenging for attackers to impersonate trusted entities.


Value: Tokenization involves replacing sensitive data with unique tokens, reducing the risk associated with data exposure.
Implementation in Zero Trust: In a zero trust model, even within trusted zones, tokenization can be employed to limit the exposure of sensitive information. This ensures that even if a user or device is compromised, the risk of exposing critical data is minimized.

Key Management:

Value: Effectively managing cryptographic keys is essential for maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of encrypted data.
Implementation in Zero Trust: In a zero trust environment, proper key management becomes even more critical. Cryptographic keys must be protected, regularly rotated, and access to them should be closely monitored to prevent unauthorized access.

In summary, cryptography acts as a foundational element in the implementation of zero trust principles, providing essential tools to secure data, authenticate users and devices, and establish trustworthy communication channels within an inherently untrusted environment.

How do we initiate a Zero Trust Strategy?

Zero Trust is a CyberSecurity approach designed to augment or replace the traditional perimeter-based security model. Organizations should aim to gradually integrate zero trust principles, procedural adjustments, and technological solutions tailored to safeguard their data assets and business operations on a case-by-case basis. Most enterprise infrastructures will function in a hybrid mode, incorporating both Zero Trust and perimeter-based security, while simultaneously investing in IT modernization endeavors and refining organizational work flows. For Zero Trust to be effective, organizations must implement comprehensive information security and resilience practices. When harmonized with existing CyberSecurity policies and guidance, identity and access management, continuous monitoring, and industry best practices, a Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) can establish a mature and resilient CyberSecurity posture.

Zero Trust operates under the assumption that threats are omnipresent, and an attack is not just possible but likely, prompting the need for a thorough evaluation of any user/subject or system through a proper PDP/PEP protocol, regardless of their location. Integrating Zero Trust should be a foundational aspect of roles development to secure the evolving "new way to work" paradigm. However, it's important to note that a one-size-fits-all Zero Trust Model is not a universal solution for all CyberSecurity challenges. It represents a journey that demands a well-defined and documented strategy, a proficient and skilled team, and a seamlessly integrated, federated IAM process aligned with the organization's goals and objectives, guided by the following principles.

  • Verify Explicitly: Every resource request for access from any user or system on the network, regardless of their location, must be continuously authenticated, authorized, and granted access to interact with that specific resource, utilizing the least possible privilege access possible.
  • Assume Breach: Under Zero Trust, nothing inside the network is trustworthy. The assumption of a breach is imminent, requiring a continuous monitoring and validation of all activities.
  • Segment the Network: Each valued asset on the enterprise network is isolated and segmented into its own isolated compartment to contain and limits lateral movement of a successful breach.
  • Inspect and log Traffic: All ingress and egress network traffic are monitored, logged, and analyzed for potential suspicious activity and confidentiality violation that can increase risk.
  • Adapt and Respond Continuously: Security policies and countermeasures should be proactive, dynamic, and responsive to changing conditions, which include adjusting access privileges based on known risk-based threat intelligence research activities and other user behavior modifications patterns.

These principles pertain to tasks scheduled and conducted within an organization or in collaboration with one or more partner organizations (supply chain), and do not encompass anonymous public or consumer-facing business processes. It is neither feasible nor appropriate for an organization to impose internal policies on external actors (e.g., customers or general Internet users). However, the organization may have the capacity to implement its Zero Trust-based policies on non-enterprise users, or any users or devices on its network, irrespective of their specific relationship with the organization (e.g., registered customers, employee dependents, malicious actors, hackers, etc.).

The fundamental principles and objectives of CyberSecurity encompass the continuous processes of prevention, detection, and correction, which align with the central goals of a Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA). While many discussions of ZT emphasize the elimination of broad perimeter defenses (e.g., enterprise firewalls), they still often define themselves in relation to perimeters in some capacity, such as through concepts like micro-segmentation or micro-perimeters, which constitute functional elements of a ZTA. The following is an attempt to elucidate Zero Trust by outlining a set of principles that should be integrated rather than excluded during the planning and implementation phases of a ZTA design. These principles represent the ideal objective, although it is important to recognize that not all of them may be fully realized in their purest form for a given strategy.

In this abstract Zero Trust strategy model of access depicted below, a subject requires access to an enterprise resource. Access is granted once the proper authentication phase through a policy decision point (PDP) and corresponding policy enforcement point (PEP) has been achieved.

Zero Trust Access

The system must verify that the subject is genuine, appropriately authorized, and the request is legitimate. The PDP/PEP is responsible for making sound judgments regarding authentication and authorization, granting continuous access to a resource throughout the session life cycle. Positioned at every layer of protection within the enterprise architecture perimeter, the PDP/PEP holds paramount importance in the Zero Trust model. It serves as the central decision-making point for all access requests and should operate based on a clearly defined and documented policy that is in line with the organization's goals and objectives.

The PDP/PEP should be able to answer the following questions:
  • What is the level of confidence about the subject’s identity for this unique request?
  • Is access to the resource allowable, given the level of confidence in the subject’s identity?
  • Does the device used for the request have the proper security posture?
  • Are there other factors that should be considered that could change the confidence level (e.g., time, location of subject, subject’s security posture)?
A Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) is a security framework that operates on the principle of "never trust, always verify." It fundamentally challenges the traditional model of trusting entities inside a network and instead requires continuous authentication and authorization regardless of location or device. The core tenets of a Zero Trust Architecture are:
The Tenets of Zero Trust:
    • All resource authentication and authorization are dynamic and strictly enforced before access is allowed.
    • All data sources and computing services are considered resources.
    • The enterprise monitors and measures the integrity and security posture of all owned and associated resources.
    • All communication is secured regardless of network location.
    • Access to individual enterprise resources is granted on a per-session basis.
    • Access to resources is determined by dynamic policy—including the observable state of client identity, application/service, and the requesting asset—and may include other behavioral and environmental attributes.
    • The enterprise collects as much information as possible about the current state of assets, network infrastructure and communications and uses it to improve its security posture.

The Zero Trust journey, aligned with the prioritization of the CIAAN principles (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Authenticity, and Non-Repudiation), is a strategic approach to security that emphasizes safeguarding critical aspects of information. The Zero Trust journey should prioritize:

  • Confidentiality is achieved through the rigorous application of Zero Trust principles like need-to-know and least privilege, preventing unauthorized disclosure of valuable data.
  • Integrity which safeguards and enhances the value of assets by ensuring they are more accurate, timely, current, and meaningful, thereby thwarting unauthorized or accidental alterations to vital information.
  • Availability ensures that critical assets, based on their value, are accessible when stakeholders require them.
  • Authenticity verifies the source and origin of significant valuable assets.
  • Non-repudiation offers assurance that an individual cannot deny having undertaken a particular action.

Zero Trust Pillars

The 7 pillars of Zero Trust (graphic posted above) serve as foundational principles for implementing a robust security framework. The actual description of their intended purposes are listed below:

  1. Identity and Access: Focus on authenticating and authorizing every user and device, ensuring that access is granted based on strict verification, regardless of location.
  2. Devices: Implement security measures on all devices, from traditional endpoints to IoT devices, ensuring they meet defined security standards before granting access.
  3. Network Security: Leverages micro-segmentation and network controls to restrict lateral movement within the network and limit access only to authorized resources.
  4. Applications: Secure applications by validating their integrity, monitoring their behavior, and ensuring that access is granted based on the principle of least privilege.
  5. Data Security: Protects data at rest and in transit through encryption and access controls, ensuring that sensitive information is only accessible to authorized users.
  6. Visibility and Analytics: Continuously monitor network and user activities, leveraging analytics and threat intelligence to detect and respond to anomalies or suspicious behavior.
  7. Automation and Orchestration: Employ automation to enforce policies, respond to security incidents, and streamline security operations, reducing the potential for human error.
  8. Education and Training: This section may not be displayed in the diagram, but it is a fundamental component of a well-organized Cybersecurity framework. Remembering that our most vulnerable assets are our employees with privilege access. Taking the time to train and educate our workforce is or should be a primary concern for any organization.

These seven pillars collectively sustain the core principles of a Zero Trust security model. By adhering to these principles, organizations can establish a holistic and adaptive security posture that minimizes risk and fortifies their defenses against modern cyber threats.

Ultimately, the overall goal of the Zero Trust Pillars is to adopt an agile process that maintains a dynamic, self-healing Network Architecture, based on the following principles:

  • Continuous Authentication, Authorization, & Multi Factor Authentication (PDP/PEP)
  • Real-Time Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) processes on all subjects and devices
  • Complete Access Control modules (Preventative, Detective, & Corrective)
  • Self-Healing Networks (Onion)
  • Real-Time Visibility, utilizing AI/Machine Learning Analytics
  • Control and Segment each Request/Access Sessions
  • Data Life Cycle (Categorization, Certification, Labeling, Marking) Policies
  • Encryption (RSA, ECC) & Non-Repudiation

According to IBM, there are four primary challenges in the industry: Poor Visibility, Disconnected or Mis-configured Tools, Information Overload, and Struggle to Keep Up with the volume of threat alerts. Proposed solutions being considered include leveraging intelligent detection and remediation, as well as streamlining controls to reduce complexity, enabling analysts to focus on the most pertinent threats rather than infrastructure monitoring tools. A properly implemented Zero Trust strategy, which emphasizes work-flows, network design, and IAM operations, can enhance CyberSecurity posture and lower the risk associated with Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA).
A strategically implemented Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA), based on the aforementioned Zero Trust principles, advocates for a well-integrated or federated IAM process that continuously authenticates and authorizes all access requests to resources on a targeted network, regardless of the requesters’ location or clearance level. This has been found to reduce risk and the overall threat landscape. Specifically, cost-effective Zero Trust solutions and tools should be implemented in a phased approach, with every control and process rigorously tested and evaluated for accuracy and effectiveness, minimizing disruption to the organization. Furthermore, eliminating silos, establishing a unified work flow, and automating routine tasks, such as pre-analysis of alert data, should be integral components of any proposed ZTA solution.
In addition, a successful ZTA implementation should result in a risk-minimized CyberSecurity profile based on resource value, aligned with the organization's policies, goals, objectives, and risk appetite, with a core commitment to safeguarding personnel, corporate assets, and various resources, including logical, technical, and physical infrastructure.
Realistically, transitioning to a ZTA is a complex and time-intensive journey that requires a specialized team of architects to implement and deploy a dynamic CyberSecurity landscape. This landscape relies on reliable and well-trained AI-based algorithms capable of analyzing and evaluating the evolving threat landscape, while providing continuous authentication and authorization for all access requests, regardless of location or clearance level. These algorithms must also establish a trusted, well-integrated, and federated IAM process in line with the organization's objectives.
Ultimately, the goal is to proactively detect advanced persistent threats, prevent their attacks, and rectify any potential negative outcomes before they materialize. The most effective approach to implementing or migrating to Zero Trust is to adapt steps from the Risk Management Framework (RMF) and the NIST CyberSecurity Framework (CSF), tailoring them to the organization's specific needs and requirements. These steps - Prepare, Categorize, Select, Implement, Assess, Authorize, and Monitor - are well-defined and, while they may initially seem overwhelming, offer the best path to achieving the desired outcome. While the initial order is crucial, it may be adjusted as needed once a full implementation is achieved.

A robust and well-defined taxonomy is critical for effective risk assessment. Without a clear taxonomy, risk assessment approaches are hindered in their ability to measure and estimate risk factor variables. This limitation in measurement and estimation capabilities can lead to inconsistent and costly Risk Management decisions. The interconnectedness of these elements is referred to as the Risk Management Stack, which can be visually represented.

Risk Management Stack

The Risk Management Stack comprises five integral components that should be implemented in harmony, commencing with STEP 01 and culminating in an Effective Management strategy. Let's delineate each of these components:

  1. Accurate Risk Model: An accurate risk model employs mathematical techniques, systems, or methods to forecast the risk elements associated with a business strategy. It leverages historical data, simulations, economic, statistical, and financial techniques to make reliable assumptions about potential or maximum risks. This provides functional data and quantitative estimates that aid businesses in making sound financial, strategic, and operational decisions.
  2. Meaningful Measurements: Meaningful measurements entail the assessment and analysis of risk utilizing statistical methodologies. Common risk measurements encompass standard deviation, Sharpe ratio, beta, value at risk (VaR), conditional value at risk (CVaR), and R-squared. These measurements assist in evaluating data dispersion, associated risks and returns, market-relative volatility, potential maximum loss, and the proportion of an investment's movements explicable by shifts in a benchmark index.
  3. Effective Comparisons: Effective comparisons entail the evaluation of risks across different investments or industries. Benchmarking serves as a potent tool for comparing activities of similar risks and gaging the pace of a given activity relative to other comparable ones. It aids in identifying areas that could benefit from centralized controls, prioritizing resources, and allocating them to risks necessitating stronger coverage.
  4. Well-informed Decisions: Well-informed decisions encompass considering all available information and data relevant to risk prior to making a decision. This encompasses conducting risk assessments, scrutinizing potential outcomes, and assessing the likelihood and impact of each risk scenario. Effective risk communication is also pivotal in ensuring decision-makers possess a clear understanding of the risks, enabling them to make informed choices.
  5. Effective Management: Effective management denotes the implementation and execution of risk mitigation strategies and controls to minimize the impact of risks. This encompasses vigilant monitoring, regular risk assessments, continual evaluation of the effectiveness of Risk Management measures, and making adjustments as needed. Effective management also encompasses fostering a risk-aware culture within the organization and ensuring adherence to industry-specific standards and regulations.

In essence, the components of the Risk Management Stack collaborate to institute a systematic and comprehensive approach to managing and mitigating risks. This empowers businesses to make well-informed decisions grounded in accurate risk models, meaningful measurements, effective comparisons, and proficient Risk Management strategies.

To achieve these milestones, the organization must establish a well-defined and documented CyberSecurity strategy aligned with its goals and objectives. Therefore, it is crucial for Corporate Governance, including the CISO, CIO, CTO, and CRO, to be in sync and willing to support the implementation of Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) by providing the necessary resources, funding, and talent for the desired outcome. One effective approach to reaching this milestone is to follow a phased process based on established industry standards:
  • During this initial phase, both organizational Governance (Corporate and Security) assess their existing security infrastructure, policies, standards, and procedures. They also identify potential vulnerabilities and areas where trust assumptions may be problematic, particularly in the realm of Identity & Asset Management.
  • This phase involves delineating the scope of Zero Trust implementation, understanding subject behaviors and access patterns (foundational baseline), and conducting RISK Assessments and Business Impact Analyses to prioritize critical assets and processes. Additionally, a Zero Trust Roadmap and Strategy are developed in alignment with the organization's goals and objectives.
  • This phase entails putting Zero Trust principles into practice. It encompasses the deployment of technologies and solutions supporting continuous authentication, authorization, and monitoring. Protect and Detect controls are evaluated and tested for effectiveness and accuracy.
  • Essential elements during this phase include implementing solutions like Identity and Access Management (IAM), multi-factor authentication (MFA), micro-segmentation, and conducting monitoring (Network & Endpoint). Business Continuity & Recovery Plans, along with Business Impact Analyses and Business Recovery (Hot, Warm, & Cold) strategies, are implemented and tested.
  • After the implementation of the Zero Trust model, continuous monitoring becomes crucial. This phase involves analyzing traffic, user behavior, and access patterns to identify anomalies or potential security incidents (SIEM/SOAR).
  • Regular updates to policies, technologies (addressing viruses, malware, spyware, social engineering), and user education and training are essential for maintaining the effectiveness of the ZTA over time.
It's important to emphasize that Zero Trust is not a one-time project, nor is it a one-size-fits-all approach. It is a continuous CyberSecurity framework that requires ongoing assessment, updates, education, and adaptation to address evolving threats, disruptions, and organizational changes. Additionally, user education and awareness play a pivotal role in the overall success of a Zero Trust implementation. After all, Security is everyone’s responsibility!


The integration of Zero Trust principles into all phases of information technology development and deployment is crucial. While it's essential to maintain a balanced, cost-effective approach that aligns with organizational goals, safeguarding assets like data and personnel is paramount for business continuity.

Implementing a Zero Trust CyberSecurity strategy is an ongoing endeavor that necessitates regular updates and adjustments to address evolving threats and technologies. Staying abreast of emerging threats and CyberSecurity best practices is imperative for safeguarding organizational assets. When combined with existing CyberSecurity policies and guidance, robust identity and access management, continuous monitoring, and industry-leading practices, a Zero Trust Architecture provides substantial protection against common threats and enhances an organization's security posture through a managed risk approach, well-informed expertise, and seamless resource integration.

A Zero Trust approach primarily emphasizes the protection of data and services but should encompass all enterprise assets (devices, infrastructure components, applications, virtual and cloud components) and subjects (end users, applications, and other non-human entities seeking information from resources).

To be more specific, we view Zero Trust as a User Experience Initiative that enhances user safety as well as their IT CyberSecurity journey. Zero Trust redefines how users interact with Information Systems, placing security as the guiding principle without compromising usability. It is a user-centric approach that emphasizes continuous authentication and authorization, ensuring that users are who they claim to be and have the appropriate level of access to resources. It also involves implementing user-friendly authentication methods, such as biometrics, single sign-on, and adaptive authentication, to minimize any disruptions to the user experience.

Here's how we envision Zero Trust will impact our user experience:
  1. Continuous Verification: Users will experience a seamless, continuous verification process, ensuring that their access remains secure throughout their interaction with our resources.
  2. Frictionless Authentication: We will implement user-friendly authentication methods, such as biometrics, single sign-on, and adaptive authentication, to minimize any disruptions to the user experience.
  3. Role-Based Access: Access controls will be tailored to user roles, ensuring that individuals have the appropriate level of access for their responsibilities, enhancing security without hindering productivity.
  4. Transparent Security Measures: We will communicate security measures clearly to our users, emphasizing how they contribute to a safe and protected environment.
  5. User Education and Support: We are committed to providing resources and training to educate users about best practices for identity protection and security.
  6. Feedback-Driven Optimization: We will actively seek user feedback to refine authentication processes and address any pain points, ensuring that the user experience continually improves.
  7. Seamless Integration: Our Zero Trust approach will seamlessly integrate with existing systems and applications, minimizing disruptions to the user experience.
  8. Accessibility and Inclusivity: We will ensure that the Zero Trust framework is accessible to all users, including those with disabilities, emphasizing inclusivity in our security measures.

A Zero Trust strategy commences with people, transforming how they access data and employing advanced tools to implement necessary risk mitigations. Cost is a pivotal consideration that can significantly influence an organization's ability to embark on a Zero Trust strategy. Establishing governance and processes, adapting to evolving workspaces, and reevaluating how tools are procured are all substantial decisions in mitigating CyberSecurity risks. It represents a fundamental cultural shift that should originate from leadership, leveraging technology and corporate security as catalysts for a more proactive, threat-informed organization rather than a reactive one. By aligning Zero Trust with a user-centric approach, we are not only enhancing security but also fostering a culture of security awareness and user trust within our organization.

Johnny Sandaire PhD, CISSP, CC, OpenFAIR, MCAD